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TODO is the twenty-first most common word in the Spanish language.

I always remember a few years back one of my pupils said “to do” instead of TODO. Such is the imprint  and the power of the maternal tongue.

So, happy Spanish language learners, this word, the twenty-first most common word in the Spanish language is TODO not ” to do”. (If you have been following this series of podcasts and posts the word for “to do” is coming up shortly. I know you cannot wait – it is, in fact, high frequency word number 24. I will say no more – hacer is a cracking and confusing two syllable irregular verb).

TODO is a an adjective, a pronoun and is in particular neat verbal constructions.

TODO can mainly be translated into English as all.

In my previous post (the twentieth most common word in the Spanish language LO I talked about the value of reading the dictionary. I will know give an example of that. The next entry to TODO in my dictionary is todopoderoso. The first that all good linguists do is split a word up into its constituent parts – so, here we have TODO poderoso. So the first part means all, and usually, when there is some context around the word, that helps to give the meaning away. If, therefore you came across the following:-

el Todopoderoso está en el cielo – the Allmighty (all-powerful) is in heaven.

Here are some examples of the use of TODO

todo el mundo – all the world i.e. everybody

todo o nada – all or nothing

todos los coches – all the cars

For those on the other side of the pond (I am writing and podcasting this from the UK), the word coche in Spanish Spanish means car. The word “carro” in Spanish Spanish means “cart”. Such are the difficulties presented by the Atlantic divide. Carro thus potentially is a false friend (un amigo falso) depending on where you are in the world.

There we have it. TODO, the twenty first most common word in the Spanish language. One to know – that’s for sure!

Why not pop details of any Spanish false friends you know in the form below. The more the merrier!

To get us started – actual does not mean actual in Spanish, it is current, present day, as in el gobierno actual – the current government.

le

Le is the nineteenth most common word in the Spanish Language.

It is not to be confused with the French le. Le in French means “the”. Le in Spanish means “to him”, to “her” or “to you” depending on the context, i.e. the words and meanings around le.

Le is, in grammatical terms, an indirect personal pronoun.

This is another example of a one syllable word punching well above its apparent verbal weight in the Spanish top one hundred words.

My dictionary gives it a couple of meanings.

Here is an example of the use of le :-

Le hablo – I speak to him (or to her, or to you)

So there it is, a short crisp post for the nineteenth most common word in the Spanish language. Le is definitely a word to lock away and know if your intention is to get to grips with Spanish.

TENER is the eighteenth most common word in the Spanish Language and it deserves our attention.

But this is a very special verb, to use its correct grammatical name. It is a verb and, moreover, it is one of those troublesome verbs, or attractive verbs (it depends on your point of view) which is irregular. No, dear Spanish learners, it does not follow the regular -er pattern. Its irregularity comes from its high octane lifestyle being used so frequently, and has therefore it has really got bashed about over the years.

And, standing above all of this grammatical banter, is the magic of its range of meanings.

Oh, by the way, such was my excitement reaching TENER in the top one hundred words in Spanish podcast odyssey, that I forgot to tell you the meaning. It simple terms TENER means “to have”. But, for the English speaker, it has a large range of meanings. Indeed, my dictionary has some eighteen or nineteen meanings and nuances of meaning.

To keep it simple, however, I am just going for two key meanings.

Here are two simple, key uses of TENER with the translations.

Tengo dos hermanos – I have two brothers

Tengo veintisiete años – I am 27 years old. (Literally I have 27 years old.)

So there it is – TENER is the 19th most frequently used word in the Spanish language. A two syllable battle hardened stalwart which is a “must-learn”.

estar

Estar is the seventeenth most frequently used word in the Spanish language.

Estar is a verb and, to boot, it is irregular (that is to say that it does not follow the normal regular -ar verb formations) and causes no end of trouble to most learners of the Spanish language, especially to maternal English tongue speakers.

So, what’s all the trouble about? To be or not to be, to quote Shakespeare, is the problem. Estar means “to be”. But the attentive to this series of posts and podcasts will know that we have already dealt with a monosyllabic powerhouse verb meaning to be, ser. See post on high frequency word in Spanish number 8 (click here http://wp.me/p3mW5k-3v)

Estar means to be. That definition is simply stated, but flowing from that is a whole grammar book’s worth of scholarly debate. However, for our purposes here, to be will do.

Examples of use:

Madrid está en España – Madrid is in Spain. (Está is indicating geographic position).

Estoy cansado – I am tired (a temporary state – I am not always tired … if this was the case you would say soy cansado)

Well, it is not easy.

Ser or no ser? Estar or no Estar. I’ll leave it there – the discussion could go from grammatical to philosophical.

So, there you have it – estar the seventeenth most common word in the Spanish language.

como

Como is the sixteenth most common word in the Spanish language.

Como is defined grammatically as an adverb. The two syllable word has some eight different shades of meaning according to my dictionary, and therefore can present something of a challenge to a student who is starting to learn Spanish.

In the spirit of this series of posts, I am going to keep the definition simple and fairly restricted. Como means like in English or such as.

Here are a couple of examples of the use of como

Luis Suárez juega como un idiota – Luis Suárez plays like an idiot.

(a reference to a recent event when Liverpool striker Suárez bit the ear of an opponent).

Luis Suárez no tiene ventajas como la paciencia y autocontrol – Luis Suárez has no advantages such as patience and self-control

(sorry to go on about it!)

To conclude, como, a a crsip two syllable adverb, meaning like or such as is the sixteenth most frequently used word in the Spanish language.

su

Su is the fourteenth most common word in the Spanish language, and, as such, it really is a “no-brainer” (an expression I have heard in the past some of my students say) – you have to know it because it crops up so often.

Su is a possessive adjective.

The dictionary definition of su is:-

his

her

your

one’s

its (not it’s.. but that is an English grammatical can of worms, which I will not open!)

their

A long, and potentially very confusing list of words there. Of course, the specific meaning all depends on the context, that is to say the words and meanings surrounding the word su.

In the spirit of these podcasts, I will Keep It Simple. The most frequent meaning is his or her.

Here are some examples:-

Juan tiene su camisa – Juan has his shirt

Juanita tiene su camisa – Juanita has her shirt

“¡Tenga, su camisa, señor!” – “Here you are, your shirt, sir!”

el perro y su cachorro – the dog and its puppy

Juan y Juanita tienen su casa cerca de la playa – Juan and Juanita have their house near the beach.

Well su, for its diminutive size, certainly packs a punch!

So, there we have it – su is the 14th most common word in the Spanish language. It is a “no brainer” for the Spanish language learner, you simply have to know it!

 con with

Con is the 13th most frequent word in the Spanish language. Con is a preposition.

Con in its simplest meaning is with in English, but, as ever, with these little Spanish monosyllables, there is a whole range of shades of meaning. My dictionary, for example, comes up with a whole range – 12 to be precise.

To the English speaker’s ear, this word is slightly odd. No – it has nothing to do with con, or con artists, or, come to that, the mafia. No con is a much more friendly and cosy word than that!

Here are some examples of the use of con.

Voy a ir al teatro con mi amigo – I am going to the theatre with my friend.

¡Vamos a la playa con tus amigos ingleses! – Let’s go to the beach with your English friends!

One of my favourite uses of con is in the following example:-

Sueño con mi mujer – I dream about my wife. I simply love the fact that in Spanish you dream with your wife. It struck me forcefully when I was a young romantic Englishman getting to grips with Spanish. That feeling is still with me today!

Well, there it is number 13 in the top one hundred Spanish words. Not unlucky at all!